The Economic Complexity (EC) methodology uses high-resolution data on the activities that are present in a given geography to predict the development dynamics of countries, cities and regions. The EC theoretical framework can use different data sources can be used to calculate EC (employment, production, exports, patents). In general, the rule is to use the data with the best resolution and manifestation of economic activities.
The complexity is related to the capacities, resources, technologies, human capital and infrastructure required for its development. One measure of such complexity is the Economic Complexity Index (ECI), which captures how complex an economy is by identifying both the activities it can successfully carry out and where else those activities are present. CE can be applied using data on the manufacture, sales or export of products, in which case we speak of Economic Complexity of Products (PCI) and can also be calculated using data on employment or production of economic activities through the Index of Complexity of Activities Economics (ACI).
According to the Observatory of Economic Complexity, in 2020 Mexico was the 9th economy in total exports, the 13th in total imports, and the 23 most complex economy in terms of the ECI.
In the second half of 2021, the most complex states in Mexico with respect to the accumulation of capabilities measured by the size of the labor force were Nuevo León (1.78), Querétaro (1.6), and Baja California (1.28). The most complex metropolitan areas based on the criteria as above were Juárez (2.39), Monterrey (2.17), and Querétaro (2.04).